Eau de parfum or perfume oil - what are the differences?
A perfume consists of alcohol, water and essential oils (or fragrances that are synthetically produced). The difference between eau de parfum and eau de toilette lies in the concentration of scented oils. The proportion of essential oils in an Eau de Parfum is between 8 and 15%. If an eau de parfum contains the addition "Intense", the fragrance oil concentration is up to 20 percent. A Parfum Extrait describes a 15 to 30% concentration of the fragrance composition. The high concentration is the reason why an eau de parfum lasts a long time and can be used sparingly.
An eau de toilette is a scented water with a perfume oil content of 6 - 9%. Eaux de toilette are mostly fresh and light and can therefore be applied more generously to the body. The name eau de toilette has to do with the use of scented water in the Middle Ages. At that time it was used for personal hygiene as well as cleaning. For this purpose, cloths were used, which are called "toile" in French. The word "Eau" means "water" and this is where eau de toilette emerged.
An Eau de Cologne has the lowest concentration of fragrance oils at 3 - 5% and is a very light, mostly fresh scent. The original formulation of the Eau de Cologne goes back to the pharmacist Johann Maria Farina, who created a light perfume in Cologne in the 18th century and thus produced the first Cologne water.
In contrast, perfume oils do not contain alcohol. The essential fragrance oils are not combined with water and alcohol, but are embedded in one or more carrier oils. The concentration of the fragrance essences is high and since oils release the fragrance slowly, the fragrances have a subtle and long-lasting effect. Without alcohol, perfume oils can also be a good alternative for sensitive skin.